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Historical Period

Operation Barbarossa
On 22 June 1941 the Nazis launched Operation Barbarossa, the biggest invasion force in the history of warfare against their ally, the Soviet Union. The invasion date was planned for 15 May 1941, which would have given Hitler much more of the summer…
David Low cartoon, 1934
Starting on the night of the 30 June 1934, the Nazis removed their political opponents and paramilitary supporters in a single purge in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives. Having gained political power in the 1933 election, Hitler…
Holbein's portrait of Anne of Cleves, 1539
On 9 July 1540, Henry VIII had his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled after just six months of marriage. Following the death of his favourite wife Jane Seymour,and under the advice of Thomas Cromwell, Henry had set about finding a…
Paul Delaroche: 'The Execution of Lady Jane Grey'
On 10 July 1553, four days after the death of her cousin Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey became queen of England. It would be short lived: within nine days, she would step down and be placed in the Tower under charges of treason. History has painted Jane…
Adolf Hitler surveying damage at the Wolf's Lair after the Bomb Plot
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg entered the conference room at the Wolf’s Lair in Rastenburg, East Prussia, carrying a briefcase with a primed bomb. Shortly after the start of the meeting, he received an urgent telephone call and excused…
Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell was the infamous adviser to Henry VIII. Born around 1485, he was executed without trial on 28 July 1540 for heresy and treason. Down through history, he has been viewed as a cynical, Machiavellian upstart, who drove through reform…
The Battle of Hastings depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry
The Battle of Hastings is considered one of the most important battles of England's history. It put an end to Anglo-Saxon England, and started a new era of Norman rule. Following the death of Edward the Confessor in January 1066, Harold…
The Stone Age
The Stone Age is the name given for human prehistory (that happened before history, that’s not written down) from the first humans who used tools through to the use of metal. It is called the Stone Age because much of the physical evidence left…
Castlerigg Stone Circle
The Stone Age is the period of human history that covers the time from when humans first started using stone tools through to when they started using metallic tools. The term ‘Stone Age’ is somewhat arbitrary, as it suggests that humans used nothing…
Stonehenge
Stonehenge is a famous, but little understood, stone circle just outside Amesbury in Wiltshire. It is also more than just a stone circle, with a ritual landscape spreading out from it in every direction. Within this landscape, there are a number of…
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