People holding and cultivating small landed estates; freeholders.
Fact of the Day
After a crush killed 33 at the Bolton Wanderers' football ground in 1946, the bodies were lined up against the touchline and the game restarted, next to the bodies, within 30 minutes.
Quote of the Day
"<p>No-one loves armed missionaries</p>
~ Robespierre, 1792
On This Day
1066At the Battle of Fulford, just outside York, Harold Hardrada defeated the English earls Eadwine and Morcar. It prompted Harold Godwinsson to march to their aid, which probably cost him victory at the Battle of Hastings a month later.
1187Saladin began the Siege of Jerusalem. The city surrendered in October 1187, which shocked Pope Urban III so much that he allegedly died as a result.
1586Anthony Babington, one of the leaders of the eponymous Babington Plot to execute Elizabeth I and replace her with the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, was hanged drawn and quartered with six co-conspirators. Elizabeth was so horrified by the manner of execution that she ordered the remaining conspirators - destined to be executed on the following day - be hanged to death before the disemboweling began.
1643The Royalists suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parliamentarians, led by the Earl of Essex, at the first Battle of Newbury during the Civil Wars. Although both sides lost similarly small numbers, some historians consider it a turning point in Parliamentarian fortunes, leading to their alliance with the Scottish Covenanters and their eventual victory over Charles I.
1909The South Africa Act 1909 received British royal assent, creating the Union of South Africa.
1911White Star Line's RMS Olympic, sister ship to Titanic, collided with HMS Hawke off the Isle of Wight.