A series of conflicts, during the second half of the fifteenth century, between two branches of the Plantagenet line: York and Lancaster. Over the course of 30 years the crown passed through several hands: Henry VI, Edward VI, Edward V, Richard III, and Henry Tudor. Most historians date the end of the Wars to Henry VII's victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, although it can be argued that they actually finally finished during the sixteenth century.
Wars of the Roses
Fact of the Day
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy used c. 80,000 barrels of gunpowder every year.
Quote of the Day
"Getting up in the morning is no pleasure; Drinking in the morning is the best. "
~ François Rabelais, monk and scholar
On This Day
1541 The German-Swiss Paracelsus, alchemist and 'herald of toxicology' who made significant contributions to the use of chemistry in medicine, died in Salzburg.
1645 Charles I suffered a personal defeat at the Battle of Rowton Heath when the army he was leading lost to the Parliamentarians and thus failed to relieve the Siege of Chester.
1652 Highwayman Captain James Hind was executed for treason. He had targeted Roundheads and become something of a Cavalier hero.
1869 Two speculators, Jay Gould and James Fisk, caused havoc on the New York Gold Exchange when they used insider information obtained through their friendship with US president Ulysses S. Grant to manipulate the price of gold. 'Black Friday' led to economic destabilisation, the ruin of thousands of businessmen, and questions over Grant's presidency, but Gould and Fisk managed to escape prosecution.