An action or decision performed by or affecting only one person, group, or country, without the agreement of the others.
Fact of the Day
According to Karl Marx, Napoleon III’s consort, the Empress Eugénie, had a farting problem.
Quote of the Day
"I have taken great care not to laugh at human actions, not to weep at them, nor to hate them, but to understand them. "
~ Baruch Spinoza
On This Day
1541 The German-Swiss Paracelsus, alchemist and 'herald of toxicology' who made significant contributions to the use of chemistry in medicine, died in Salzburg.
1645 Charles I suffered a personal defeat at the Battle of Rowton Heath when the army he was leading lost to the Parliamentarians and thus failed to relieve the Siege of Chester.
1652 Highwayman Captain James Hind was executed for treason. He had targeted Roundheads and become something of a Cavalier hero.
1869 Two speculators, Jay Gould and James Fisk, caused havoc on the New York Gold Exchange when they used insider information obtained through their friendship with US president Ulysses S. Grant to manipulate the price of gold. 'Black Friday' led to economic destabilisation, the ruin of thousands of businessmen, and questions over Grant's presidency, but Gould and Fisk managed to escape prosecution.