The Third Crusade (1189-1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
Fact of the Day
Paris society was rocked by scandalAn event or action that causes public outrage, or the outrage caused by that event or action.
in 1787, when Madame Vigée Le Brun painted herself with a wide smile on her face.
Quote of the Day
"It is better for aged diplomats to be bored than for young men to die."
~ Warren Robinson Austin, US ambassador to the UN
On This Day
1554Henry Grey, first Duke of Suffolk and father of Lady Jane Grey, was executed for his role in the Wyatt Rebellion, which had also inadvertently led to the execution of his daughter.
1633Samuel Pepys, London diarist, Secretary to the Admiralty and creator of the modern Royal Navy, was born.
1657The Humble Petition and Advice was presented to Oliver Cromwell during the sitting of the Second Protectorate Parliament, offering him the English crown. After some deliberation, Cromwell refused.
1820A plot to kill the members of the Cabinet, the Cato Street Conspiracy, was foiled thanks to a police informer. 13 members were arrested (five were later executed) and one policeman died.
1821Romantic poet John Keats died of tuberculosis, aged only 25.
1874A new game called Sphairistike (taken from the Greek for 'the art of playing ball') was patented by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield. It would be renamed lawn tennis.
1898Émile Zola was convicted of criminal libel for writing J'accuse in defence of Dreyfus. To escape jail, he fled to England without time even to pack some clothes.
1903The US assumed control over the southern portion of Guantánamo Bay in the Cuban-American Treaty of Relations, which the current Cuban government says was obtained through threat of force.
1934British composer Edward Elgar died of cancer, aged 76.
1945The RAF bombed the German town of Pforzheim, destroying about 83% of the town's buildings and killing as many as 17,600 (about 31%) of its population.
1954The world's first polio vaccine began to be tested on crippled children and school children in Pennsylvania.
2014Accomplished pianist and the oldest known survivor of the Nazi Holocaust, Alice Herz-Sommer, died in London at the age of 110.