A civil war, lasting from 1264 until 1267, between Henry III and some of his barons led by Simon de Montfort. Sparked by issues over crown finance and government, it it became a struggle between the power of an absolutist king and the rights of his barons.
Second Barons' War
Fact of the Day
In 1385, London appointed its first sanitary officer, the serjeant of the Channel, to keep the streets free of rubbish.
Quote of the Day
"He who is the author of a war lets loose the whole contagion of hell and opens a vein that bleeds a nation to death. "
~ Thomas Paine
On This Day
1541 The German-Swiss Paracelsus, alchemist and 'herald of toxicology' who made significant contributions to the use of chemistry in medicine, died in Salzburg.
1645 Charles I suffered a personal defeat at the Battle of Rowton Heath when the army he was leading lost to the Parliamentarians and thus failed to relieve the Siege of Chester.
1652 Highwayman Captain James Hind was executed for treason. He had targeted Roundheads and become something of a Cavalier hero.
1869 Two speculators, Jay Gould and James Fisk, caused havoc on the New York Gold Exchange when they used insider information obtained through their friendship with US president Ulysses S. Grant to manipulate the price of gold. 'Black Friday' led to economic destabilisation, the ruin of thousands of businessmen, and questions over Grant's presidency, but Gould and Fisk managed to escape prosecution.