1. Two or more types of people who have different ideas, etc, but who coexist; or support for such a state; 2. The practice of holding more than one ecclesiastical office at a time.
Fact of the Day
When news of the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 reached Pope Urban III, he is said to have died immediately of shock and grief.
Quote of the Day
"Parliaments are of the Nature of cats: they ever grow curst with age. "
~ Charles I
On This Day
461 Roman emperor Julius Valerius Majorianus was beheaded in north-west Italy by his former friend Ricimer, following a disastrous naval battle with the Vandals in the Bay of Alicante.
1613 Sir Thomas Fleming, the judge who presided over the trial of Guy Fawkes following the Gun powder Plot, died suddenly in his bed, aged 69.
1840 The Chimney Sweepers and Chimneys Regulation Act 1840 was passed. It was designed to prevent children climbing chimneys as chimney sweeps. However, it was largely ignored due to lack of enforcement.
1914 The first elements of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) landed in France following the declaration of war with Germany. By the end of 1914, much of the old army had been wiped out.
1933 The start of the five-day Simele Massacre against Assyrians by Iraqi forces, sparked by clashes with the Iraqi army after Assyrian refugees were refused entry into Syria.