An extinct species (or subspecies) of human who lived in Eurasia between up to 600,000 years ago (the first 'true' Neanderthals being from around 250,000 years ago) and about 40,000 years ago. They lived alongside modern humans and interbred with them.
Fact of the Day
33 years after toilet paper was invented in Green Bay, Wisconsin, it was finally advertised as 'splinter free'.
Quote of the Day
"I fear the Greeks, even those bearing gifts. "
On This Day
1536 Henry Fitzroy, the illegitimate son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount, died of 'consumption' aged 17 (some sources state he died on 22 July).
1840 The Province of Canada was created by the Act of Union. In combining the predominantly British Upper Canada with the French Lower Canada, it was hoped it would reduce French influence through assimilation.
1903 The Ford Motor Company sold its first ever car, a Model A.
1914 Representatives of the Austro-Hungarian Empire issued the Serbian government with an ultimatum after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Demands included their own investigation, censorship of educational material and the press, and the abolition of certain organisations. Unsurprisingly, Serbia could not accept all of the ultimatum without being humiliated, leading to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on 28 July.
1942 The SS Treblinka extermination camp was opened in Poland. Up to 900,000 Jews were killed there.
1962 Communications satellite Telstar relayed the first live transatlantic programme to viewers' homes.