The exclusive control of a supply or shade. Monopolies used to be granted by the monarch to an individual as a way of rewarding that individual, or for a handsome sum.
Fact of the Day
In some Anglo-Saxon calendars, 7 November is known as 'Winter's Day' - the first day of winter.
Quote of the Day
"Who has appointed the Germans the judges of nations? "
~ John of Salisbury
On This Day
1675 The foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London was laid.
1792 The Tuileries royal palace that was home to Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette and defended by the Swiss Guard, was attacked by Parisians and the National Guard. Louis ordered the Swiss to cease fire, which led to the massacre of some 600 of their number. France was declared a republic and Louis was executed five months later.
1793 The Musée du Louvre was officially opened in Paris.
1842 The Mines and Collieries Act was passed, prohibiting women and children under the age of 10 from working underground.
1895 The first ever Proms concert took place at the newly-built Queen's Hall, London. The programme included Wagner, Bizet, and Haydn.
1945 A day after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan announced its intention to surrender, although it refused to contemplate a reduction in the power of the emperor.