The king/queen and royal family of a country, or a form of government with a king/queen at the head.
Fact of the Day
Henry the Fowler, king of East Francia and founder of the Ottonian dynasty of German rulers, once traded a large part of Swabia (modern Switzerland and Alsace) for a spear.
Quote of the Day
"This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning. "
~ Winston Churchill on the Battle of Egypt
On This Day
585 BCE The first recorded predicted solar eclipse (by Thales of Miletus) stopped a battle between the Lydians and the Medes, who agreed to a truce.
1533 Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn valid.
1644 Up to 1,600 civilians and supporters of parliament were killed by Royalist forces during and after fighting at Bolton. It became known as the Bolton Massacre and a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda.
1849 Author Anne Brontë died of tuberculosis, aged 29.
1937 Alfred Adler, the Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the concept of the inferiority complex, died of heart failure while on a visit to Aberdeen.
1937 Conservative politician and famous appeaser of Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, became prime minister.
1945 American-born Nazi propagandist Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) was shot in the buttocks and captured. He was tried in Britain for treason (despite being an American) and hanged.