A ground-breaking book, written by Thomas Hobbes and published in 1651. In it he argues for a reciprocal relationship between obedience (from the people) and protection (by the state), so this work is considered one of the first works of social contract theory. With Hobbes arguing from this position, it could easily be read that he was advising people to come to terms with the new parliamentarian regime in England.
Fact of the Day
In the Middle Ages, land could be held from the monarch in return for a service, such as holding the king's head as he crossed the Channel by boat.
Quote of the Day
"It shall make a delightful summer capital when we invade Britain. "
~ Joseph Goebbels on Edinburgh
On This Day
759 King Oswulf of Northumbria was murdered by members of his household, less than a year after coming to power.
1304 Edward I captured Stirling Castle, the last Scottish stronghold against English rule during the First War of Scottish Independence, with the help of Warwolf, the largest trebuchet ever built.
1567 Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son, James VI (the future James I of England).
1851 The window tax, 'a tax on light and air', was finally repealed after a long campaign by those concerned about public health.
1883 Matthew Webb, the first recorded person to swim the English Channel for sports purposes unaided, died while trying to swim through the Whirlpool Rapids below Niagara Falls. He was 35 years old.
1936 The first British speaking clock was introduced. It was designed for those who wanted to know the time, but didn't have a watch to hand. Despite it now being unnecessary, it is still popular.
1943 Operation Gomorrah, the Allied plan to obliterate the German city of Hamburg, began. Over 30,000 civilians were killed in the firestorms created by the bombardment.
1969 Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins, returned safely to Earth after their trip to the Moon.