A Medieval social structure where, in theory, the nobility would protect everyone, the peasants would pay for this protection by working the land, and the clergy would pray for everyone. In the secular world, the monarch was at the top of the pyramid, with each layer of nobility and commons owing services or favour to the layers above and below them.
Fact of the Day
In 1956 John Wayne starred as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror. It was filmed in Utah, downwind of the US government's nuclear tests in Nevada, and about half the cast and crew developed cancer as a result.
Quote of the Day
"I haven't failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work. "
~ Thomas Edison
On This Day
205 Plautianus, long-time friend of Roman emperor Septimius Severus, was exceuted for allegedly plotting to kill the imperial family.
1536 The leaders of the Münster Rebellion, that turned Münster into an Anabaptist commune, were tortured and executed.
1552 The deposed Lord Protector and uncle to Edward VI, was executed for 'plotting' to change the government.
1561 Francis Bacon, statesman, lawyer, philosopher, essayist and Lord Chancellor of England, was born.
1666 Mogul Emperor of India, Shah Jahan, who built the Taj Mahal, died under house-arrest in Agra Fort having been locked away by his son.
1719 William Paterson, one of the founders of the Bank of England and main proponents of the Darien scheme (Scottish colony in Panama) died. A mystery still surrounds his burial site.
1788 'Mad, bad, and dangerous to know', romantic poet Lord Byron was born.
1901 Queen Victoria died, aged 81. At the time, she was the longest reigning monarch and was succeeded by her son, Edward VII.
1924 Ramsay MacDonald became the first Labour Prime Miniter. It didn't last long - he lost the general election in October 1924.
1959 Mike Hawthorn, the UK's first F1 World Champion driver died in a car crash on the A3 in Surrey. He was 29.